Do not be afraid to contact your local used record store. They might save you a lot of work. He holds a graduate degree in Russian literature from Stanford University and currently lives in Los Angeles. By: Noel Lawrence Updated September 15, The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.
The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV.
By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall. It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1.
Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of direct metal mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed pitch grooves just like their 78 predecessors. The use of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable pitch grooves. The magnetic tape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disc was equipped with an auxiliary playback head positioned ahead of the main head by a distance equal to one revolution of the disc.
The sole purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the recording. If the sound level from both the auxiliary and main magnetic heads was loud, the cutting head on the disc recording lathe was driven at its normal speed. However, if the sound level from both magnetic heads was quieter, then the disc cutting head could be driven at a lower speed reducing the groove pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other. The playing time of the disc was therefore increased by an amount dependent on the duration of quieter passages.
The record manufacturers had also realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further increase the playing time.
These low frequencies were then restored to their original level on playback. Furthermore, if the amplitude of the high frequencies was artificially boosted on recording the disc and then subsequently reduced to their original level on playback, the noise introduced by the disc would be reduced by a similar amount.
This gave rise to an equalization frequency response applied during record coupled with an inverse of the response applied on playback. Each disc manufacturer applied their own version of an equalization curve mostly because each manufacturer's equalization curve was protected by interlocking patents.
Low-end reproduction equipment applied a compromise playback equalization that reproduced most discs reasonably well. However, amplifiers for audiophile equipment were equipped with an equalization selector with a position for most, if not all, disc manufacturers.
The net effect of equalization is to allow longer playing time and lower background noise while maintaining full fidelity of music or other content.
Consequently, both low-quality and audiophile reproducers alike could replay any recording with the correct equalization. There are two versions of the reproduction RIAA equalization curve.
The first, is simply the inverse of the recording curve designed for cheaper equipment using crystal or ceramic reproduction cartridges. The second curve is intended for equipment fitted with magnetic reproduction cartridges where the output voltage is dependent on the frequency of the recorded signal the voltage output is directly proportional to the frequency of the recorded signal; that is: the voltage doubles as the recorded frequency doubles.
The audio quality of LPs has increased greatly since their inception. While early LP recordings were monophonic , stereophony had been demonstrated in and Alan Blumlein had patented Stereophonic sound in Unsuccessful attempts were made to create stereophonic records starting in the s, including Emory Cook 's "binaural" LPs using two precisely spaced tracks on the record one track for each channel which had to be played with two monaural pick-ups on a tuning-fork-shaped tonearm.
The modern system ultimately released by Audio Fidelity Records in November uses two modulation angles, equal and opposite 45 degrees from vertical and so perpendicular to each other.
It can also be thought of as using traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of left and right channels mono , making it essentially compatible with simple mono recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the two channels. The composition of vinyl used to press records a blend of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate has varied considerably over the years.
Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the s energy crisis , it became commonplace to use recycled vinyl. Sound quality suffered, with increased ticks, pops, and other surface noises. Records in different novelty shapes have also been produced.
Many critics have expressed skepticism regarding the cost and quality of HD records. The audio engineering software was created with mastering engineers Scott Hull and Darcy Proper, a four-time Grammy winner. The demonstration offered the first simulations of what HD Vinyl records are likely to sound like, ahead of actual HD vinyl physical record production.
Loibl discussed the Perfect Groove software at a presentation titled "Vinyl 4. Line-out turntables limit you to the performance of the built-in phono stage. USB turntables need a computer and this type usually has lower quality components. A retro record player is great if you don't want quality, and portability is a must.
So having decided on a direct cartridge output turntable which one do you buy? Turntables to consider. The Cartridge Nagaoka MP Ortofon 2M Red. The Phono Stage Nowadays few amps have an input for a direct cartridge output turntable, so you need a box of electronics to go between the turntable and the amplifier.
We refer to them to them as phono preamps or phono stages. How It Goes Together. The image shows the rear panel of a phono stage phono preamp etc! Typical amplifier inputs. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape , the 8-track cartridge , and the compact cassette.
The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the s. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and ,  when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants.
This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies. In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles , collectors , and DJs.
Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl.
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available. This is because for disc jockeys "DJs" , vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium.
DJ techniques such as slip-cueing , beatmatching , and scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record player , and record itself are built to withstand it.
Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled in , with 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. In artist Jack White sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazaretto , on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since The sales record was previously held by Pearl Jam 's Vitalogy , which sold 34, copies in one week in In , the sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In , CBS released the CX format, downward compatible for higher dynamic range and noise reduction.
VinylVideo was a 45 RPM format to store a low resolution black and white video on record. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Vinyl record. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. See also: LP record.
Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable. See also: Recording medium comparison. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
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Journal of Popular Culture. The Business Online. Archived from the original on 31 December Retrieved 14 January London: Telegraph. Free Love carries the confidence of two people delighted to be all those things, together, at once. Includes coupon for full download An explosive album of pain, rage and fear with some of the most direct and confrontational lyrics of his four-decade career.
Having not hit the road for most of the 80s, The Steel Wheels Tour was an astounding return for the Rolling Stones, not least as it was the longest they had by that point undertaken. It was also to be their last with Bill Wyman. Steel Wheels Live was recorded towards the end of the band's date run through the stadiums of North America, in the second half of Limited Edition Color Pressing.
Diana Krall's new self-produced album, This Dream Of You, was mixed by Al Schmitt, who worked closely with her to achieve the notable intimacy and immediacy. A record for right now but also feels like a movie you might share with someone you know will stay with it until the final reel. One of the first bands to overtly combine death metal with atmospheric keyboards, Nocturnus' debut album introduced more technical and progessive elements into the traditional death metal formula without losing any of the brutality.
The audio for this vinyl is taken from the original tapes in Full Dynamic Range, allowing the music's nuances to shine through and giving the album a more immersive and dynamic sound than ever before. Singer-songwriters have been tackling existential questions about life and death since time immemorial' or at least the s.
Once you have identified your release versionyou will need to search for it on Discogs. All of these were phased out in mid Playing Vinyl Records Keep your records dust free! Record wear can be Tie Goes To The Rummer - Various - Def Record II (Vinyl to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary. This holds true of garage sales, thrift shops, flea markets, and record fairs. The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. The challenger was a vintage RCA pressing of Scheherazade that Port had personally selected from his hot stamper stash. However, LP) and deep red were continued until about
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