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Ante Grgin born is a Serbian clarinetist and composer of Croatian origin. Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations A. An anti-handling device is an attachment to or integral part of a landmine or other munition e. An anti-lock braking system ABS is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses.

The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. The anti-nuclear movement in Germany has a long history dating back to the early s when large demonstrations prevented the construction of a nuclear plant at Wyhl.

Anton Adner ? Anton Casimir Dilger 13 February — 17 October was a German-American medical doctor, and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I. Anton Graff 18 November — 22 June was an eminent Swiss portrait artist. Anton Kohler c. Anton Malloth 13 February — 31 October was a supervisor in the "Kleine Festung" Small Fortress part of the Theresienstadt concentration camp. Antonella Ragno-Lonzi born June 6, is an Italian fencer and Olympic champion in foil competition.

Antonio Maria Bernacchi 23 June — 1 March was an Italian castrato, composer, and teacher of singing. Antonio Saura September 22, — July 22, was a Spanish artist and writer, one of the major post-war painters to emerge in Spain in the fifties whose work has marked several generations of artists and whose critical voice is often remembered. Antonio Zugarelli born January 17, , in Rome is a retired professional tennis player from Italy.

Anulka Maria Dziubinska born 14 December is an English actress and model. The European Patent Convention EPC , the multilateral treaty instituting the legal system according to which European patents are granted, contains provisions allowing a party to appeal a decision issued by a first instance department of the European Patent Office EPO.

Apple Store is a chain of retail stores owned and operated by Apple Inc. The stores sell Mac personal computers, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, iPod portable media players, Apple Watch smartwatches, Apple TV digital media players, software, and select third-party accessories. Apulian vase painting was a regional style of South Italian vase painting from ancient Apulia. Arabella-Hochhaus is a storey,, skyscraper designed by architect Toby Schmidbauer. Arabella Miho Steinbacher born 14 November is a German classical violinist.

Araripedactylus was a large genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur, known from a single wing bone found in the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil. Archery had its debut at the Summer Olympics and has been contested in 16 Olympiads.

Architecture and Vision AV is an international and multidisciplinary partnership working in architecture, design and art. As with other towns and cities in Ireland, Letterkenny has a history of great architecture. The Argentina Olympic football team represents Argentina in international football competitions in the Olympic Games.

Argentine cuisine is described as a cultural blending of Mediterranean influences such as those created by Italian and Spanish populations with and very small inflows mainly in border areas , Indigenous, within the wide scope of agricultural products that are abundant in the country. Ari Pakarinen born 14 May is a retired male javelin thrower from Finland. Ariadne on Naxos , Op. Arianna Fernanda Follis born November 11, in Ivrea, Piedmont is an Italian cross-country skier who started competing in Arijan Komazec born January 23, is a retired Croatian professional basketball player.

Aris Thessaloniki. Aristotelis "Aris" Gavelas born 10 November is a retired Greek sprinter who specialized in the metres. Arlene Francis born Arline Francis Kazanjian; October 20, — May 31, was an American actress, radio and television talk show host, and game show panelist. Herman Dirk van Dodeweerd born 18 September , known as Armando, is a Dutch painter, sculptor and writer.

Armenians in Germany are ethnic Armenians living within the modern republic of Germany. Armin Mohler 12 April — 4 July was a Swiss-born far right political writer and philosopher associated with the Neue Rechte movement. Arnd Klawitter born 26 July , Hamburg, Germany , is a German actor of stage, movie and television. Arne Quinze born 15 December is a Belgian conceptual artist best known for his unconventional and controversial public art installations.

Arno Allan Penzias born 26 April is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics who is co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger born July 30, is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, 5 December — 26 April was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics. Arnold Walfisz 2 July — 29 May was a Polish mathematician working in analytic number theory. Arnold Zweig 10 November — 26 November was a German writer and anti-war and antifascist activist.

Arnon Erez is an acclaimed Israeli pianist and chamber musician, at ArkivMusic. Arnoud Okken born 20 April in Doetinchem is a Dutch athlete specialising in the metres. Arsi Ilari Harju born March 18, is a Finnish former track and field athlete who competed in the shot put.

An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between and The art of the Third Reich was the government-approved art produced in Nazi Germany between and Arthur Kutscher July 17, in Hannover — August 29, in Munich was a German historian of literature and researcher in drama.

Arthur Seyss-Inquart German:; 22 July October was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days — from 11 to 13 March — before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas. Asa Gray November 18, — January 30, is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.

The Asam brothers Cosmas Damian Asam and Egid Quirin Asam were sculptors, workers in stucco, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany.

Assunta Legnante born 14 May in Naples is a visually impaired Italian shot putter. Astra Airlines is a Greek regional airline headquartered in Thessaloniki and based at Thessaloniki International Airport. The Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte italic is the Neapolitan department of Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica National Institute for Astrophysics, INAF , the most important Italian institution promoting, developing and conducting scientific research in the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, and space science.

Was this a sign of growing confidence or was it a case of trying to use the voice as another instrument or texture? Was that deliberate? And it was a total downer.

Apparently he then had a fight with his girlfriend, went out into his van, got steaming, took loads of the coke and died over night…. Do you feel the third album reached the creative highs you wanted for Fiend as a whole?

Did you set out to do a trio of albums? And did you have any sort of tenuous link between them, but I suppose you were kinda just putting them together as they came to you….

You mentioned earlier and when we spoke before, you suggested there might be a fourth…? I mean, it might end up being from the same drawer and it probably will be… but yeah…. I think I want to hear stuff. Did you ever play any of it live? It reminds me of Godspeed! Modern poetry written in English must be in words whose rhythm, based upon accent, tends toward uniformity rather than toward variety.

Both prose and poetry have rhythm, the stream or flow of accented and unaccented syllables; in prose the pattern constantly varies, while in poetry it approaches some sort ofregularity.

This is clearly poetry:. Rose leaves, when the rose is dead, Are heap'd for the beloved's bed; And so thy thoughts, when Thou art gone, Love itself shall slumber on. It would be no less poetry if it were set up: Music, when soft voices die, vibrates in the memory. Odours, when sweet violets sicken, live within the sense they quicken.

Rose leaves, when the rose is dead, are heap'd for the beloveds bed. And so thy thoughts, when Thou art gone, Love itself shall slumber on. It did not take the line division to make this poetry. Technically, the tendency toward regularity in the rhythm made it definitely verse and not prose, while its emotional appeal, to most people, makes it poetry.

It is equally poetic in either typographic form. Set up the opening of the first chapter of this book in the same line division: The word poetry is often used Loosely to mean whatever embodies The products of imagination And fancy, the finer emotions And the sense of ideal beauty.

In this lax usage, men speak of "The poetry of motion," the poetry Of Rodin or Wagner, the poetry This is prose. No magic worked by the line division can bring it any closer to poetry. Only a comparative regularity in the alternation of accented and unaccented syllables can make it acceptable verse; this, plus the proper emotional appeal, alone can make it poetry.

Meter and Metric Feet Meter is a comparatively regular rhythm in verse or poetry. There are four common metric feet used in English verse. Their names are taken over from classic durational or quantity meters. The first two feet listed below are occasionally encountered in English verse, the third rarely or never.

In practice, the spondee may be used as an iamb or as a trochee; in combination, we may have In head -long flight in which the word is used as a trochee; He plunged head-long in which the word is used as an iamb.

In actual verse and poetry, never forget that the actual rhythm of the words, as normally uttered in a conversational tone, differs from the artificial scansion pattern adopted. Take one of the most regular five-foot iambic lines in the language: The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.

The curfew j tolls the knell of parting day. Here we have one iamb, two feet consisting of mere accented syllables for which we have no name, and two feet of three syllables each unaccentaccentunaccent, or amphibrachs. To make the actual line fit the planned iambic pattern, we have to divide words as follows: The cur-1 few tolls the knell of part-1 ing day. Absolutely natural iambic lines are rare: And dwell upon your grave when you are dead. The Comedy of Errors, William Shakespeare.

A repetition of such lines would be monotonous, unnatural and intrinsically unpoetic. To show a still further group of variations, the opening of Hamlet's most famous soliloquy, commencing "To be or not to be," is theoretically in the same iambic five-foot pattern: three lines, each consisting theoretically of five ta-TUM's. The actual scansion brings in strange and unusual feet, or groups of unaccents with one accent, and shows that these three lines have only four actual feet apiece a foot being, in.

English, normally grouped around one accent , where the pattern called for five in each line: To be I or not to be. That is the question. Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. Hamlet, William Shakespeare. Here are four feet of two syllables each two iambs and two trochees ; four of three syllables each three amphibrachs and one anapest ; one of one syllable; and three of four syllables each two of one type, one of another.

And only four natural feet to each line. This is acceptable five-foot iambic verse, in the hands of the world's greatest master. In later plays, his variations became more extreme, until at times his rhythms were less regular than Whitman's typical free verse or polyrhythmic poetry.

What is desired, in metric poetry, is a regular pattern, with restrained freedom and variety in its use. The poet should learn to scan his poetrythat is, to mark the accented and unaccented syllables as above, and then to divide it both into the natural speech rhythm and into the artificial pattern rhythm. There is no need for pride, if the poetry is excessively regular.

As a rule, that means that it is strained and unnatural in phrasing, and to that extent falls below true greatness in technique. In reading poetry aloud or to oneself, avoid most of all an unnatural singsong. Instead, read this and all other poetry as naturally as if it were unpatterned prose. The pattern is there and will make itself felt. Excellence in reading depends upon naturalness in expression. Many more words in English are trochees than iambs. Iambic is the preferred pattern because such trochaic words are normally introduced by a one-syllabled unaccented article, preposition, or the like.

Normally lines do not open with the trochee hoping, but rather with such a phrase as in hoping, for hoping, and hoping, this hoping, if hoping, and so on.

Lines name the metric pattern and are described by the type of foot and the number of feet to the line. Thus a one-foot iambic line could be written: All hail! A two-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you! A three-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my friends! A four-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my worthy friends! A five-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my wholly worthy friends! Note how naturally trochaic words like wholly and worthy fit into this iambic pattern.

This line might have been: In hailing friendship's wholly worthy sons, in which case four words hailing, friendship's, wholly, worthy are complete trochees in themselves, yet are transformed into word-split units in the iambic pattern, by the introductory unaccented word in and the concluding accented word sons. The iambic pattern may be used with a feminine ending: that is, with the addition of an unaccented syllable to the last foot. A stanza of five lines, successively one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-foot iambic lines with feminine endings, could be manufactured easily: Good morning, Benignant April, With all your rainbow blossoms, With birds all carolling their rapture, With love alive within the hearts of maidens.

The scansion for this would be:. With all I your rain-1 bow bios-1 soms, With birds all car-1 oiling their rap- ture, With love I alive within the hearts of maid-1 ens.

This is often described as if the first line, for instance, were a twofoot line, with one syllable missing, and is called catalectic verse.

The reality is that of an iambic foot followed by a loose or unattached, unaccented syllable. Writing iambic verse is as easy as writing any form of verse. Iambic verse may be altered into trochaic at any time, by adding an accented syllable to each line's beginning or by removing the opening unaccented syllable. The process may be reversed as easily, thus changing trochaic verse into iambic.

Start with this iambic version: And then the little Hiawatha Remarked unto the old Nokomis, I know that hills are edged with valleys. By adding an accented syllable at the beginning of each line, this becomes trochaic: Now and then the little Hiawatha Said aloud unto the old Nokomis, Well I know that hills are edged with valleys.

By removing the opening unaccented syllable in each iambic line above, the lines are four-foot trochaic: Then the little Hiawatha Said unto the old Nokomis, All the hills are edged with valleys.

This is the regular meter of Longfellow's Hiawatha and is as easy to write as iambic verse. Trochaic Verse Trochaic verse is less usual in English than iambic, because the custom of the language is to introduce most remarks with an unaccented syllable or word. Hiawatha opens upon this pattern: Should you ask me, whence these stories, Whence these legends and traditions, With the odours of the forest, With the dew and damp of meadows.

Hiawatha, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. In natural accent the first three of the lines quoted have only two accents apiece, and not four: so that the natural scansion, as of the third line, is With the odours of the forest. Shakespeare commences a witches' incantation with the abrupt staccato natural accent: Round about the cauldron go; In the poisoned entrails throw. Toad, that under cold stone Days and nights has thirty-one Sweltered venom sleeping got, Boil thou first f the charmed pot.

Macbeth, William Shakespeare. An interesting variation here is the use of cold as a dissyllable, as if it were pronounced co-old. It may be regarded as the one-syllabled cold, followed by a pause consuming the length of time it would take to pronounce an unaccented syllable. In any case, it is an effective variant device. Trochaic verse might certainly be described with propriety as iambic verse, with the introductory unaccented syllable omitted in each line. The description is unimportant; the important thing is to choose, understand, and use adequately the pattern, whatever it is called.

But the accepted pattern is trochaic four-foot, and the custom is to prefer the first scansion given. At any time, within reason dictated by the poet's own. Similar substitutions may take place in dactylic verse.

The best poetry contains variety within uniformity. Notice that in the trochaic lines from Macbeth the last unaccented syllable is omitted in every line. This again gives an example of catalectic verse. The name is unimportant: a trochaic line may end on a masculine ending as easily as an iambic line ends on a feminine ending.

A dactylic line may end on a trochee or an accented syllable; an anapestic line may have an extra unaccented syllable, or even two of them, without losing its anapestic character. Variety in uniformity It may be described as an iamb with an extra unaccented syllable added before it.

A typical line following this pattern would be: To the end of the world in the dawn. The English language has more accented syllables than many others, and a succession of two unaccented syllables is comparatively infrequent. There are so few natural anapests in the language that this is usual and permitted. The same thing applies to dactylic verse. In anapestic and dactylic verse, a fourth syllable, usually unaccented, again like a grace note, may appear in any foot.

So long as such variations please the inner ear, the inner sense of word music, they are aids. The natural poet will always make his own patterns, knowing that poetry is self-created and not devised by rigid rules. It may be described as a trochee with an extra unaccented syllable added after it. Here is an illustration: Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volleyed and thundered; Stormed at with shot and shell, Boldly they fought, and well.

Cannon in front of them Volleyed and thundered; Stormed at with shot and shell, Boldly they fought, and well. Once the technique of scansion is mastered, the poet must be his own court of last appeal upon it. These feet become excessively monotonous in long poems, though they may be used with advantage in brief lyrics. Variations in Metric Verse The use of variations in metric verse is widespread. The development of every poet of importance, whose technique did not begin and remain rigid and crystallized, has been in the direction of more and more variety.

This is displayed impressively by the development of Shakespeare and of Keats. Little such development is shown in the technique of more rigid minor poets. A few examples must suffice. Shakespeare in his final peak period wrote lines whose natural scansion was as loose as: A malady Most in-1 cident to maids; bold oxlips and The crown imperial; lilies of all kinds,.

The flow-1 er-de-luce being one! O, these 11 lack. The Winter's Tale, William Shakespeare. One of the most praised lines in Keats is: Robs not I one light seed from the feath-1 er'd grass. Hyperion, John Keats. Keats has at least one line, in the same pattern, consisting of five trochees: Thea! Where is Saturn?

Robert Frost has such masterly lines as the following, in the same five-foot iambic pattern: And spread her apron to it.

She put out her hand. Strange how such innocence gets its own way. The Black Cottage, Robert Frost. And the saw snarled and rattled, snarled and rattled. But the hand was gone already. In this last line the monosyllable So is followed by a pause that takes the place of a foot and a half.

One of Frost's most triumphant variations is: Littlelessnothing! And that ended it. Alison Gross, Old English Ballad. Where the chaf-1 finch sings on the or-1 chard bough. Home-Thoughts, from Abroad, Robert Browning.

So numerous are the variations to which the metric pattern in English can be adapted, to the greater naturalness of the poetry. Accent Pattern Instead of Metric Coleridge, in one poem, abandoned the formal metric foot altogether, in favor of a rediscovered Old English method of letting the line pattern consist of a definite number of accents, with any number of unaccented syllables, occurring in any order.

How drow-1 sily it crew. Christabel, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This follows the same method of accent versification. Walter de la Mare's most famous poem is built around a pattern of three accents to the line, as the second and fourth line below indicate; he uses unaccented syllables where he pleases: But on-1 ly a host of phantom listeners That dwelt in the lone house then, Stood lis-1 tening in the qui-1 et of the moonlight To that voice from the world of men.

The Listeners, Walter de la Mare. Other modern poets have done as much, or more. Variety within uniformity. Blank Verse and Free Verse Blank verse means simply unrhymed verse. Any line pattern, if unrhymed, is blank verse. Heroic blank verse is unrhymed five-foot iambic poetry or verse.

Most of Shakespeare is written in heroic blank verse. Heroic couplets, beloved of Dryden and Pope, are pairs of five-foot iambic lines rhymed with each other.

Free verse may be rhymed or unrhymed, although it is usually unrhymed, since rhyming is an even more unnatural convention of poetry than meter; and the poet who has abandoned formal meter will hardly, as a rule, still use the device of rhyming. Free verse is verse without a metric pattern, but with a wider pattern than meter allows.

It still tends toward regularity, rather than variety, and the final court of appeals as to whether any example should be classified as poetry or prose from a standpoint of content, or as verse or prose from a standpoint of technique, is the individual poet or reader himself. To many readers, the following are all poetry: Lord, thou hast been our dwelling-place in all generations.

Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. Thou turnest man to destruction; and sayest, return, ye children of men. The Ninetieth Psalm. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicatewe cannot consecratewe cannot hallowthis ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or to detract.

The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here; but it can never forget what they did here. The Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln. Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, out of the mockingbird's throat, the musical shuttle, out of the Ninth-month midnight, over the sterile sands, and the fields beyond, where the child leaving his bed wandered alone, bareheaded, barefoot, down from the showered halo, up from the mystic play of shadows twining and twisting as if they were alive.

Walt Whitman used the artificial line division of poetry to present the third of these selections; the King James version of the Bible and Lincoln used the natural line division so familiar in the printing of prose. Little or nothing is added by the artificial line division: Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, Out of the mocking-bird's throat, the musical shuttle, Out of the Ninth-month midnight, Over the sterile sands, and the fields beyond, where the child leaving his bed wandered alone, bareheaded, barefoot, Down from the showered halo, Up from the mystic play of shadows twining and twisting as if they were alive.

It is poetry, to many, in either form; and the first form is the more natural and readable. Scan the Whitman selection, or any of the others, and the tendency toward regularity of rhythm becomes apparent: a wider regularity, perhaps only an up rhythm or a down rhythm, but still inevitably there.

This distinguishes free verse from prose, from the technical point of view. At times writers of free verse let their lines reach surprising lengths, no matter how lovely the music is: thus Sandburg,. Cool Tombs, Carl Sandburg. Again the lines can be extremely brief: It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. Fog, Carl Sandburg. The free verse writer devises his own line-division pattern.

This form, eliminating the devices of meter and rhyme, calls on the poet to avoid the inconsequential and the trivial, and to write down only his important utterances. If rhyme is a shelter for mediocrity, as Shelley wrote in his preface to The Revolt of Islam, free verse is a test of the best that the poet has in him.

Line Length in Verse Oliver Wendell Holmes, himself a doctor, advanced the theory that line length in verse marked physiologically the normal breathing of the poet. In other words, a breath should be taken at the end of each line; and the line should be no longer than the poet's ability to hold his breath. No artificial line division is used in prose, to indicate where a breath should be taken.

There is no greater reason for artificial line division in poetry. It still remains true that the long Greek lines, each consisting of six feet, called for huge-breasted warriorbards to chant them; that the norm of English verse, the five-foot iambic line, indicates a lesser chest expansion in the typical English poet; and that the briefer modern tendency shows a further deterioration in the chest expansion of poets.

Where poetry consists in end-stopped lineslines with a natural pause at the end of each linethere is more reason for an artificial line division. Shakespeare began so; many poets never get beyond this, in the main. But when we come to poetry like We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life. A sonnet set up in this manner appears: O bitter moon, O cold and bitter moon, climbing your midnight hillside of bleak sky, the earth, as you, once knew a blazing noon.

Night brings the silver hour when she will die. We shall be cold as you are, and as bitter, icily circling toward a tepid fire, playing at life with our deceitful glitter, past joy, past hope, forever past desire.

Yet still the forest lifts its leafy wings to flutter for a while before the chill. A couplet need not be rhymed: it may be an unrhymed two-line poem, or two-line stanza.

It may be in any rhythm or combination of rhythms. The Triplet or Tercet A group of three lines, whether a complete poem or a stanza, is called a triplet, or tercet. This is not as common a form as the couplet or the four-line form, the quatrain. An example is: A still small voice spake unto me, 1 "Life is so full of misery, 1 Were it not better not to be?

It is clear that with three lines to work from, theJines in such a group might be rhymed 1, 1, 2, in which the third line rhymes with nothing in the triplet; or 1, 2, 2; or 1, 2, 1.

In the case of groups of triplet stanzas, the rhymes may be interlocked: Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own! The tumult of thy mighty harmonies Will take from both a deep autumnal tone, Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, Spirit fierce, My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one! Drive my dead thoughts over the universe Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth! And, by the incantation of this verse, Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind!

Be through my lips to unawakened earth 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 5 4. The trumpet of a prophecy! O wind, 5 If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?

This interlocked rhyming, where the unrhymed middle line of one triplet becomes the rhymed first and third lines of the next, the whole ending with a thirteenth and fourteenth line rhyming with the unrhymed central line of the preceding triplet, is a special Italian verse stanza form, called terza rima. As Shelley used it, it might be regarded as an apt variation of the Shakespearean sonnet.

It may be constituted of less or more triplets, always followed by such a concluding couplet. Notice, in the hands of this master, the rhyming devices. Is-harmonies illustrates rhyming a primary accent with a secondary one: and the secondary one is an indeterminate sound, more often rhymed with seas than with is, which gives it the effect of partial consonance.

Fierce-universe is consonance, not rhyme, as is birth-hearth-earth, long defended as an "eye rhyme," but admissible as consonance. The same is true of mankind-wind-behind. It is incorrect to pronounce the noun wind as if it were the verb to wind; wind here rhymed with thinned, and is in consonance with behind.

Triplets may be in any rhythm, including free verse or polyrhythm. And they may be unrhymed: I have had playmates, I have had companions, In my days of childhood, in my joyful school-days; All, all are gone, the old familiar faces. I have been laughing, I have been carousing, Drinking late, sitting late, with my bosom cronies; All, all are gone, the old familiar faces. In this poem Lamb invented his own pattern—unrhymed six-foot trochaic in the main, with seven feet in the fifth line; and with the terminal line of each triplet a refrain, repeated without alteration.

Any poet may make his own pattern for any poem he wishes; and, if it finds favor, it may become a standard pattern. The Quatrain A quatrain is a stanza or poem of four lines. This is the most popular brief stanza in English versification, and has a variety of familiar rhyme schemes. Ordinary ballad meter was originally seven-foot iambic rhymed couplets:. As normally printed today, this becomes a quatrain, with the first and third lines unrhymed, and only the second and fourth rhyming—a rhyme scheme that may be used with other meters as well, and with any number of feet to each line: As Robin Hood in the forest strayed, All under the greenwood tree, He was aware of a brave young man, As fine as fine might be.

Almost as popular is the quatrain rhymed on alternate lines: A violet by a mossy stone 1 Half-hidden from the eye! Quatrains may be rhymed couplet-wise: Tiger, tiger, burning bright 1 In the forests of the night, 1 What immortal hand or eye 2 Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Note that this is not indented: that is, that line two is set directly under line one.

The purpose of indentation is primarily to show the rhyme scheme: lines rhyming with each other may be normally set beneath each other, as in the two previous examples.

Indentation is used either to show identities of rhyme, or to center briefer lines in a stanza or poem. The In Memoriam stanza is built upon a four-foot iambic pattern, rhymed as follows: Ring out old shapes of foul disease; Ring out the narrowing lust of gold; 1 2 1 2 3 2.

Edward Fitzgerald's translation or recreation of the quatrains or Rubdiydt of Omar Khayyam has one of the most famous quatrain rhyme patterns in the language, using five-foot iambic lines: The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ, 1 Moves on: nor all your Piety nor Wit 1 Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line 2 Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it.

Other possible quatrain rhyme arrangements are: 1, 1, 1, 1; 1, 1, 1, 2; 2, 2, 2, 2; 1, 2, 1, 1; 1, 2, 3, 1; 1, 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 3, 3; 1, 2, 2, 3; and no doubt others. Hereafter, no additional rhyming patterns will be listed, since by now it should be understood that none is forbidden. As for the number of feet to the line in these quatrains, the number for the better-known patterns is as follows: Ballad Meter, 4, 3, 4, 3.

Called also Long Meter in hymns. In Memoriam, 4, 4, 4, 4. Rubdiydt, 5, 5, 5, 5. Short Meter in hymns , 3, 3, 4, 3. This last was popular in the sixteenth century as Poulter's measure. These four are all in iambic lines. Of course, any metric foot or combination of feet may be employed. It need not be repeated again that the quatrain, as any other stanza, may be unrhymed or may be in polyrhythm.

Adelaide Crapsey invented one containing 1, 2, 3, 4 and 1 iambic feet respectively in the lines:. Triad, Adelaide Crapsey. A rhymed cinquain is used in one of Shelley's best-known odes: Hail to thee, blithe Spirit! Notice how the indentation centers the briefer lines, as well as indicating, in the first four, rhyming mates. The number of feet here is 3, 3, 3, 3, 6. A terminal six-foot iambic line is called an Alexandrine; this was constantly used with iambic five-foot lines as a terminal.

Shelley uses this pattern throughout his poem To a Skylark. Foe, another master craftsman, altered his rhyme and meter pattern from stanza to stanza in his greatest lyrics. The familiar love song To Helen "Helen, thy beauty is to me—" has, in his three cinquains or fiveline stanzas, these three different rhyme arrangements; 1,2, 1, 2, 2; 3, 4, 3, 4, 3; 5, 6, 6, 5, 6. To his inner musical ear, these changes were more musical than regularity could have been.

A six-line stanza is called a sextet or sestet. Here is an example: Fear no more the heat o' the sun 1 Nor the furious winter's rages; 2 Thou thy worldly task hast done, 1 Home art gone and ta'en thy wages: 2 Golden lads and girls all must, 3 As chimney-sweepers, come to dust. The trochaic pattern here is four-foot lines. One of the favorite stanzas of Robert Burns has the iambic pattern of 4 , 4 , 4 , 2,4, 2; as in his To a Field-Mouse:.

The consonance beastie, breastie, hasty, chase thee was to be expected in the hands of a master. A popular pattern using an unusual trochaic 4, 4, 2, 4, 4, 2 measure was used by Whittier: And if I should live to be 1 The last leaf upon the tree 1 In the spring, 2 Let them laugh, as I do now, 3 At the old, forsaken bough 3 Where I cling. This may be used in longer stanzas, with a scheme such as 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, a variant of this being popularized by Tennyson: Willows whiten, aspens quiver, 1 Little breezes dusk and shiver 1 Through the wave that runs for ever 1 By the island in the river 1 Flowing down to Camelot.

This stanza is called a tail rhyme stanza and is a mere elaboration of the pattern of The Last Leaf. Certain Other Stanzas It may seem like profanation to some, to subject to the critical scalpel such a masterpiece as Keats's Ode to a Grecian Urn. But the. Here are five ten-line stanzas. Each opens with a 1, 2, 1,2 sequence. Thereafter there are differences. The first and last have the next six lines 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 5; the fourth and fifth use instead 3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5; while the second has 3, 4, 5, 3, 5, 4.

A famous seven-lined stanza is called Rhyme Royal. Here is a typical use by Chaucer: To you, my purse, and to none other wight 1 Complain I, for ye be my lady dear. This has a terminal couplet rhyming 3, 3, which breaks the flow of the narrative somewhat. To avoid this, the Canopus stanza points a way out: The night's mysterious wings pulsed thru the dark, 1 The night's mysterious noises cracked and shivered, 2 And where their fingers met a visible spark 1 Seemed to leap forth at them, and pulsed and quivered 2 Throughout them both.

Their thickened tongues were dumb, 3 The pretty words of star-lore undelivered, 2 The pretty words that found no breath would come. Note here also that the use of some feminine or double rhymes with single or masculine rhymes is effective.

This is especially effective in a Shakespearean sonnet. Ottava rima is an Italian stanza adopted in English by many poets. It is an eight-line stanza, composed of a sestet rhymed alternately, followed by a terminal rhyming couplet. The Italians use their heroic meter, eleven syllables to the line, in it; the English prefer iambic five-foot measure. But "why then publish? Why read? Again note the use of double and single rhymes in the same stanza, quite often effective.

The Spenserian stanza was invented by Edmund Spenser, and has long been used in serious dignified verse. The eight opening five-foot iambic lines are terminated by an Alexandrine, or six-foot iambic line; the pattern may be seen in this opening of Keats's poem, which uses the stanza throughout: St.

Agnes' Eve—ah, bitter chill it was! Agnes, John Keats. Terza rima is an iambic rhythm, usually of five feet to the line. It is usually written continuously, and not in stanzas. It consists of groups of three lines, rhymed 1, 2, 1; but the rhyming sound of the middle line, 2, becomes the first and third line of the next group; and so on. The end of the canto or poem is a couplet, tying up the rhyme sound left loose as the central line terminal sound in the preceding triplet.

Thus it is a sort of chain verse, its rhyme scheme proceeding: 1,2, 1; 2, 3, 2; 3, 4, 3; 4, 5, 4; n-1, n, n-1; n, n. Shelley, in his Ode to the West Wind, used this in fourteen-line groups, separating the triplets and concluding couplet as if they were separate stanzas. It is advisable for the poet or versifier to spend some time in the. Scansion will indicate the meter employed; and the numeral system 1, 1, 2, 2 will mark for you the rhyming pattern.

Let your attention be directed especially to ingenious devices for securing variety within a formal pattern. The sonnet, which will be reached in the study of lyric poetry, has been used often and successfully as a stanza. In polyrhythmic or free verse, the stanza division follows the poet's inner mandate of where each group of lines should end, as if it were a paragraph in prose.

Sapphics and Other Classic Forms Elegiac verse, according to the classical models, consists of lines alternately dactylic hexameter and dactylic pentamenter; and then this difference is explained away by saying that the shorter lines have six accents, but omit the unaccented syllables in the third and sixth feet.

Coleridge indicates the method: In the hexameter rises the fountain's all-silvery radiance; In the pentameter aye falling in melody back.

Translation from Schiller, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It is significant that none of the five greatest examples of elegiac poetry—that based upon death, or reflections upon death—in the English language, use this form. The Greek dactylic hexameter, the classic model as the iambic five-foot line is in English, is far more complicated, according to the prosodists, than it sounds. There are six feet. The fifst four are dactyls or spondees.

The fifth must be a dactyl; otherwise, if a spondee appears here, the verse is called spondaic. The last is a spondee or a trochee. A diagram makes this clearer. This may be written in English, with an accent basis instead of a quantity basis that is, long and short syllables. Hendecasyllabics were eleven-syllabled lines composed of a spondee, a dactyl, and trochees. Alcaics, named from the lyric poet Alcaeus, a contemporary of Sappho, are of several kinds.

The first variety has a five-foot line, consisting of a spondee or iamb, an iamb, a long syllable, and two dactyls. Here is the pattern:. What are the names of these feet? The first is an epitrite first, second, third or fourth epitrite, depending upon the Jocation of the short syllable ; two choriambi or choriambs as above; and a bacchius.

This technique does not often produce poetry in English; more often, it produces prosody or verse. For an Alcaic ode, each strophe consists of four lines. The first two are eleven-syllabled Alcaics of the first kind; the third an especial form of iambic two-foot of nine syllables, described as hypercatalectic; and the fourth a ten-syllabled Alcaic of the second kind. Tennyson tried to catch it in: O mighty-mouthed inventor of harmonies, O skilled to sing of time or eternity,.

Milton, Alfred Tennyson. Sapphics are named after the poet Sappho, who is said to have used the form with high skill. A sapphic line consists of five equal beats, its central one of three syllables, and the rest of two each.

Certain English poets have essayed this meter. In the examples given, the accent sign means a syllable described as long; the other symbol means one described as short.

A choriambic line consists of a spondee, three choriambi and an iamb. A galliambic line is composed of iambs, one of which drops its final syllable, the next foot to the last being an anapest. Indentation The purpose of indentation is primarily to indicate the rhyme scheme. Indenting a line means sinking it inward by an increased blank space in the left-hand margin. Every paragraph in prose is indented at its beginning. An early indentation of poetry was similar to this, and consisted in indenting only the first line of each stanza.

Where the poet desires to impress the reader with his rhyme scheme, indenting of lines rhymed is proper: Yet this inconstancy is such As you too shall adore: I could not love thee, Dear, so much, Loved I not Honour more.

The following indentation is improper and essentially illiterate: That which her slender waist confined Shall now my joyful temples bind: No monarch but would give his crown His arms might do what this has done.

On a Girdle, Edmund Waller. Needless to say, the poet set this up without indentation. The motive for such misindentation seems to be the following foggy thinking on the part of the versifier: a Some poems by great poets are indented. Once the motive for indentation is learned—to show the similarity of rhyme sounds terminating lines indented to the same point—this error will be avoided. A second purpose of indentation is to center short lines in the.

Though diligent and zealous, he Became a slave to jealousy. Considering her beauty, 'Twas his duty To be that! Here the first, third, fourth and sixth indentations indicate rhyming changes; the second and fifth are to center briefer rhyming lines. The object is to make the poem appear as presentable as possible, considering the rhyme scheme and length of line. Recall the indentation of Shelley's To a Skylark, already given. As to sonnets, there are only two proper ways to present them: indenting for rhyme and omitting indentation.

The Italian and Shakespearean form would then have the following indentation, if this is used to indicate the rhyme scheme: Italian Sonnet 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 4 5 3 4 5 Shakespearean Sonnet 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 5 6 7 7. It is more usual to set up sonnets without indentation. The original method of indenting the Shakespearean sonnet consisted of twelve lines without indentation and an identation for the concluding couplet. All this assumes that the poet wishes to impress on the reader the rhyming scheme and the poet's fidelity in following it.

But this is initiating the reader into the irrelevant laboratory work of the poet, and has its many disadvantages, since the reader primarily wishes to know what the poet has to say, not the devices by which he increases his effectiveness.

The modern tendency is to eliminate the indentation in all poems. If poems are printed similarly to prose, the indentation will be the same as prose, to indicate paragraph openings, or to insert a quotation. These, like all definitions, define from the centers, not from the boundaries. A long-winded narrative in the first person, telling the poet's own adventures, might be classed with reason as any of the three: narrative poetry because it tells a story; dramatic, like a long dramatic monologue; and lyric, because the poet himself is speaking.

This attitude classification is not of primary importance. A fourth division, didactic poetry, that which teaches or points a moral, was once popular and is still encountered.

It is regarded at best as a low flight of poetry. Epic, Metrical Romance, Tale An epic is a long narrative poem, dealing with heroic events, usually with supernatural guidance and participation in the action. Epics are divided into natural or folk epics, and literary epics. There is a suggested theory that folk epics are preceded by and composed of folk ballads.

The earliest known epics exhibit little or no trace of any welding or amalgamating process. The earliest literary remains in Greece are of the epic type, of three varieties. Epics of personal romance and war center around the semimythical blind bard Homer, with his Iliad—the story of the flight of Helen of Sparta with her Trojan lover, Paris; the war of Greeks against Trojans to avenge this; the anger of Greek Achilles and its effects; the defeat of Troy—and the Odyssey, telling the world wanderings of Grecian Odysseus after the sack of Troy, and of his return to his native Ithaca.

Epics dealing with the mysteries of religion center around the mythical singer Orpheus. Epics of a didactic nature center around the name of Hesiod. Scholars state that many lost epics in all three fields preceded the epics now remaining. They originated before the invention of writing and were transmitted orally, with inevitable changes and additions from time to time.

Literary epics are a later attempt to catch the charm of the ancient epics; and as a rule they are a lower flight. Spenser's Faerie Queene has lost most of its charm for many modern English readers; even Milton's Paradise Lost, which sought to express English Puritanism as Dante had sought to express medieval Catholicism, is largely dull to modern readers.

Stories in verse preceded stories in prose. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the narrative metrical romances and tales of Scott, Byron and others, preceded the novel and the short story in English.

But prose has become the popular medium, as it is the more natural one, and the long poetic narrative today usually seems artificial. Ballad The ballad, the brief story in verse, alone retains some general popularity. The name meant first a folk song-and-dance, like the. It came to mean the folksong that tells a brief story—at first to be sung, later to be said or read. The Germanic bards or scalds, the gleemen, harpers, minstrels, troubadours, and minnesingersrs were a distinguished lot—the oral literature and music of races in the pre-bookish age.

The chief figures in the ballads at first were noble, since nobles were the patrons of the singers. Wenn Pater Filucius sein Gift gerade in die dampfende Suppenschiissel gieBt, so geschieht dies, damit sie ihm nachher iiber den Kopf gestiilpt werden kann, und obgleich es sich in letzterem Falle um eine ganze Mahlzeit handelt, sehen und horen wir von keiner andern Speise ; ja selbst die Suppenschiissel ist gerade noch kenntlich.

So sehr ist Busch bemiiht, nur das Wesentliche vorzufuhren. Aus den obigen Beispielen geht auch hervor, daB in Busch' Welt das Bose ohne Erbarmen bestraft wird; nicht daB er eine transzendente Gerechtigkeit eingreifen lieBe, aber die Logik der Ereignisse bringt es mit, daB sich das Bose selbst die Grube grabt. Wer zuviel trinkt, wird aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach einmal in seinem Bausche zu Grunde gehen, wie die fromme Helene, der Gourmand wird an seiner GefraBigkeit sterben, wie Schmock, der an einer Grate erstickt; der bb'se Junge treibt es solange, bis er erwischt und bestraft wird.

Dadurch erlangen seine Lebensschicksale etwas Typisches und allgemein Giiltiges, wie wir es bei Shakespeare und Moliere finden. Helenchen, ein boshaftes kleines Madchen, das sich gerne amiisiert, kommt aufs Land zu frommen, beschrankten alten Leuten, Onkel und Tante, die sie gleich mit einer langen Tugendpredigt ins Bett entlassen. Wie soil sich da der Tatentrieb des jungen Geschopfes anders 21 Vgl. Wetz, Shakespeare vom Standpunlct der vergleichenden Littera- turgeschichte, Worms, , und Lanson, Histoire de la litt.

Ludwig, Shakespeare-Studien, Berlin, Soleh ein Motiv 1st selbstver- standlich hochst fruchtbar, um Exempel zu statuieren: Die alten Leute, die so weise Lehren geben, benehmen sich sehr albern und verlieren ganz ihre Wiirde, sobald sie durch Helenchens tibermut etwas aus ihrer alltaglichen Gewohnheit in eine unge- miitlich neue Situation gebracht werden.

Helenchen andererseits kommt nicht mehr von der schiefen Ebene des Bosetuns, bis sie auf ihr in die Holle hinabgerutscht ist. Gegen diese Art von Lehren mag man einwenden: Das sind Gemeinplatze ; indessen lehren uns Shakespeare und Moliere viel anderes in ethischer Hinsicht als Gemeinplatze?

Verdanken sie nicht vielmehr, zum Teil wenigstens, dem Umstand ihre GroBe, daB sie im Stande sind, Wahrheiten, die jeder versteht, und die eine reeht lange Epoche hindurch verstanden werden konnen, in frappanter Lebendigkeit uns vor Augen zu fiihren?

Bei Busch wie bei Moliere tritt die Lehre weit evidenter hervor als bei Shakespeare, wahrscheinlich weil sie mehr bewuBt darauf abzielen. Man kann diese zwei daher Moralisten nennen.

Allen dreien wiederum ist gemeinsam, daB sie die Umgebung ihrer Menschen schauen und wissen, daB diese mehr oder minder durch die eine bose Tat beeinfluBt werden muB. Wahrend Helenchen noch mit intensivem Interesse durch das Schliisselloch in Fran- zens Sehlafzimmer sieht, geht plotzlich die Tiire auf. Er sieht meist nur die Wirkung, 22 Die f romme Helene.

Er kann nicht wie Moliere und Shake- speare vorfiihren, wie die Umgebung im weiteren Sinne des Wortes durch eine lasterhafte Person an ihrem Charakter leidet. Moliere ist hierin weniger konsequent; vielleicht, weil er ein Lustspieldichter war, vielleicht auch, weil er in jenem Frankreich des 17ten Jahrhundert lebte, das die Welt als von der Vernunft regiert betrachtete.

Die Guten, wenn es auch noch so sehr gegen die Konsequenz der Verhaltnisse geht, werden meist durch irgend ein Wunder gerettet. Wo dies nicht der Fall ist, wie im "Mis- anthrope," ist man im Zweifel, ob man es mit einem Lustspiel zu tun hat. Ein so intensiver Moralist wie Busch, der zugleich ein so auBerordentlich feiner Beobachter ist, sollte ein Meister in der Wiedergabe psychologischer Entwicklung sein.

In der Tat finden wir auch bei ihm wunderbar f eine psychologische Skizzen, die mit sicherem Schnitt die Wurzeln von Tugenden und Lastern freilegen. So wird mit kiihler Ruhe beispielsweise in der "frommen Helene" das aussere Symptom notiert, welches einen Fortschritt in dem psychologischen Verfall der Heldin anzeigt: von jugendlichen Streichen wie dem Zusammennahen von Onkels Hemd bis zur bewuBten Grausamkeit des erwachsenen Madchens, das an den Schwanz der Katze brennendes Papier befestigt, von der sinn- lichen Neugierde des Backfisches, wie es eigentlich aussieht, wenn ein Mann sich anzieht, bis zum Ehebruch.

Mit einem bitteren Realismus ist er durchgef iihrt ; nirgends Reflektion, alles Handlung. Die intimsten Gedanken der Seele werden suggeriert; das Beschrei- 23 Vgl. Tartuffe, ' ' das ganze Haus beginnt zu betriigen. Die Tragb'die beginnt mit einem jener wundervoll scharf gepragten Zynismen Busch'. Das nachste Bild zeigt sie schon halb abgewendet vom Gebetpult. Jedem Vers, der die innere Stimme formuliert, entspricht ein Vers, der mit in- differenter Brutalitat die auBere Versuchung wiedergibt; und zu gleicher Zeit wird der Flasche eine dumpf e Seele eingehaucht, aber nur so leise, daB sie kaum aus der Beihe der natiirlichen Dinge heraustritt.

Die Wendungen hierfiir sind so bescheiden gewahlt, daB sie in einem Polizeiberieht stehen konnten. Doch ] Winther: Wilhelm Busch. Wie intensiv mufi der HaB gewesen sein, der ein solches Geschopf mit einer so grandiosen Kunst zerschmetterte, und wie groB der Kiinstler, der einen solchen Gegenstand, wohlgemerkt bei nur geringem Abstand von der Wirklichkeit, ertraglich, ja, fiir viele ergb'tzlich macht. Gelegentlich erweitert sich das Interesse Busch' iiber das Ethisehe hinaus.

Er grabt einem Laster nach, bis er zu dessen Wurzel kommt, die sehr oft nicht mehr in den Bereich der ethischen Beurteilung gehort, wie die Neugierde und der Uber- mut der ' ' f rommen ' ' Helene als Kind. Manchmal bleibt er dann in diesem moralisch-indifferenten Gebiet und sieht, was aus solchen Eigenschaften bei weniger ungiinstigen Einfliissen werden kann, z. Wir haben schon bemerkt, daB Busch eine Art "Kettenphan- tasie ' ' hat : das sittlich Schlechte f iihrt ihn zum sittlich Indiffer- enten, und auch das sittlich Gute scheint ihm aus einem mora- lisch indifferenten Urgrunde, 26 ja, aus recht minderwertigen Trieben hervorzugehen, z.

Man rechnet meistens zu den Lasten Das kirchliche Gebot der Fasten. Man fastet, weil man eben muB. Fur Toni aber war's GenuB. Bouillon und Fleisch und Leberklos. Das war ihm alles tutmemschos, Dagegen jene milden Saehen, Die wir aus Mehl und Zueker machen, 26 "Sittlich" nehme ich hier im kantischen Sinne. Er trank es aus, hier sehen wir, Da8 selbst das unverniinftige Tier Mit sonst gedankenlosen Werken Den Frommen fordern muB und starken.

Doch nicht allein die Fastenzeit Fand ihn stets willig und bereit; Nein, auch die vielen Feiertage Trug er geduldig ohne Klage. Sollte aber, wenn der heilige Antonius spater im "Walde ruhig sitzend sich von Pflanzen uberwachsen laBt, den Ameisen erlaubt, in seinem Annel zu nisten, das auch noch aus GenuBsucht geschehen? Wenn mir jemand einwirft, die Qua! Wer den heiligen Antonius einen faulen Schlemmer schilt, miiBte einen Sehmetterling ein haBliches Tier nennen, ,weil er aus einer ekelhaft fetten Raupe hervorging; allein, gerade ] Winther: Wilhelm Busch.

Er sieht eben fast irnmer den Orang-Utan in uns. Beim Hofieren um Julchen geht es fast ebenso her wie da, wo die zwei Hunde Plisch und Plum nach einer Hiindin schmach- ten ; d. Nur dadurch zeigen die Menschen ihren hoheren Intellekt, daB sie statt ihrer Zahne Gartenutensilien als Waffen gebrauchen.

Die junge Liebe ware hiernach fur Busch der primitive Kampf urns Weib. Wir sehen, offen oder versteckt gelangt er fast immer zu einer unange- nehmen Lehre. Wie stimmt aber dieses Moralisieren zu seiner eigenen Behauptung, er habe alles zum Vergniigen geschrieben? Da ware zweierlei anzufiihren: Haufig deutet das Dargestellte bloB auf eine ethische Folgerung. Aber war diese beabsichtigt? Und doch muB sie hier irgendwie in ihm gesteckt haben; denn wer nach alien Richtungen blindlings darauf los photographiert, wiirde nur in ausserst seltenen Fallen Bilder erhalten, die auch nur auf eine Moral hindeuten.

Der Zorn, wenn er irgendwo hinaus kann, ist ein GenuB; versetzen sich doch primitive Volker in diese Art der Erregung einfach um des Lustgefuhls willen. Die Germanen konnten sich ja nicht einmal die Seligkeit ohne Kampf denken ; und ein Beo- bachter, der so sicher trifft wie Busch, sollte diesen GenuB nicht haben? Gerade weil er dieses burleske Sicherheitsventil fur seinen Grimm hatte, wurde er vielleicht kein unbedingter Welt- verneiner.

Einen frohlichen Pessimisten mochte man ihn nen- nen ; gewiB die Welt ist schlecht, aber unendlich komisch : "Es sitzt ein Vogel auf dem Leim, Er flattert sehr und kann nicht heim. Der Vogel denkt, weil das so ist, Und weil mich doch der Kater friBt, So will ich keine Zeit verlieren, Will'noch ein wenig quinquillieren Und lustig pfeifen wie zuvor. Der Vogel seheint mir, hat Humor.

Gesetzt den Fall, es kame nun Die Siindflut nochmal nieder, Das war' ein Zappeln und Geschreck, Wir tauchten alle unter, Dann krochen wir -wieder aus dem Dreek Und waren froh und munter. Der Gedanke ist, wie oben oft, streng zurechtweisend, aber die Form ist burlesk.

Die Mischung beider ergibt die eine Seite von Busch' Humor. Ein Mensch, der wie Busch so un- barmherzig scharf die Schwachen der andern sieht, wird sich wohl hiiten, die eigenen an den Tag zu legen. In der Tat ist nicht einmal der ' Simplicissimus, ' dieses malizioseste Witzblatt, imstande, ihm etwas vorzuhalten. Entweder verneigt er sich ehrfurchtsvoll vor Junker Satan, oder was fast noch ein feineres Kompliment ist, er benutzt dessen Waffen.

Es ist eben unmog- lich, Busch zu iiberbuschen, wenn man sich nicht selbst lacherlich machen will; mit so sicherer Hand versteht er es an der Grenze des Moglichen zu bleiben, gerade das Ausserste zu geben, ohne fratzenhaft zu werden. Das heiBt: er hat Geschmack. Ist das aber nicht selbstverstandlich bei einem Kiinstler 29 von seiner Bedeutung? Man sehe sich Dickens an, der eine Menge Humor aber schmerzlich wenig Geist hat.

Nun, sagt man, er ist ein Englander als ob die Englander nicht eine ganze Menge geist- reicher und geschmackvoller Dichter hatten, wie Byron, Pope, Shaw. Aber wir wollen uns einmal in Frankreich umsehen. Unter den Dichtern des 19ten Jahrhunderts steht Hugo in erster 28 Ebenda. Und doch 1st wohl keiner unter den GroBen der Welt- literatur, der ihn iibertrafe an Albernheiten.

Er hat Humor, wenn auch nicht so viel wie Dickens, und beinahe mochte man meinen, daB es eben der Humor 1st, der ihn wie Dickens haufig zum Toren macht. Busch, dessen Bedeutung vor allem in seinem Humor besteht, ist es also um so hoher anzureehnen, wenn er diesen in geschmackvollen Schranken zu halten weiB. Der Dichter, besonders der Moralist, sucht, um auf moglichst viele Menschen zu wirken, bewuBt oder unbewuBt die typischen, d. Busch, der nicht nur Moralist, sondern auch Humorist ist, treibt diese Konsequenz natiirlich bis zur auBersten Grenze: damit hangt wohl auch seine vielbe- sprochene Rohheit zusammen.

Man betrachte genau die Falle, wo er grausam wird, es ist gewohnlich, um auch die schlimmsten Konsequenzen einer Unachtsamkeit oder eines bosen Streiches darzutun. Der tragische Dichter, wenigstens der moderne, be- gniigt sich mit seelischer Qual, oder der einfachen Exekution seines Helden. Busch als Komiker kann sich einige pikante Zutaten leisten, wie sie dem Tragiker nur in verhaltnismaBig primitiven Zeiten gestattet wurden.

Im ernsten Bild oder im ernsten Drama wurden wir es unausstehlich finden, wenn ein Mensch an der groBen Zehe in die Hohe gezogen wiirde, abgesehen natiirlich von geschundenen Heiligen, die einen besonderen Fall darstellen. Busch hat entschieden etwas vom Dichter der prim- itiven Zeiten, und so schafft er seine extremen Falle dadurch, daB er die Vernunft und das moderne Surrogat der Vernunft, die Polizei, aus seiner Tragikomodie eliminiert hat; das heiBt, die selbstischen Triebe herrschen ungeziigelt in seiner Welt.

Und das gilt auch im groBen ganzen von seinen ausgewachsenen Kindern. Der von solchen Trieben geleitete Mensch 1st ein verhaltnismaBig einfacher Mechanismus, den Busch nochmals simplifiziert und damit ein Wesen erhalt, das durch die Ubersichtlichkeit seiner Triebe sich vorziiglicli fiir das Experiment eignet. Beim Kind ist das, wie wir schon be- merkten, noch mehr der Fall als beim Erwachsenen. Beim Tier erreicht haufig die Vorausbestimmbarkeit einen Grad mathema- tischer Sicherheit, auf die jeder Automat stolz sein konnte.

Ein Tier wird gereizt, naturlich beiBt es ; ein boshaf ter Schlingel sieht die Moglichkeit eines Streiches, natiirlich fiihrt er ihn aus. Das ist so bei dieser Art von Lebewesen, weil hier nur ein starkes Motiv vorhanden ist. Bei Erwachsenen sollte es anders sein. Diese haben doch die Vernunft als Gegengewicht der Instinkte, wenigstens nehmen wir das an. Sehen wir einmal zu, wie Onkel Nolte, ein ruhiger alter Herr, sich in einer kritischen Lage be- nimmt.

Helene naht sein Nachthemd an Hals und Armlochern zusammen, als iiberlegender Mann wird er wohl bald entdecken, warum er nicht in sein Hemd kommt, und die tibeltaterin damit strafen, daB er sie den Schaden wieder gut machen laBt, keine Spur davon; er miiht sich immer wiitender ab, in das Hemd zu kommen, bis er es zerreiBt. Nun, er war allein, glaubte sich unbeachtet, da laBt man sich gehen. In Gegenwart seiner Frau ware das ganz anders gewesen; er wtirde sich scheuen vor der weisen Sittenpredigerin, sich an ihrer Ruhe ein Beispiel nehmen.

Helenchen gibt ihm bald Gelegenheit, die Scharte auszuwetzen. So sind nach Busch die alten friedlichen Leute; man kann sich einen Begriff machen, wie die jungen erst sein werden. Wie hat ihn Hinterstich vermobelt!

Sogleich in eigener Person Fort eilt er auf die Eedaktion. Des Autors Physiognomic Bedroht er mit dem Parapluie. Die Handlung ist hier noch eine Idee impulsiver als oben; die Tante machte doch noch einen kleinen Versuch zu einem giitlichen Vergleich. Nicht einmal auf dem Weg zur Redaktion gedenkt er den Kritiker erst zur Rede zu stellen, sondern sofort greift er ihn an. Noch geringeren AnlaB zum Gef echt bedarf es bei den Tieren : "Fips [der Affe] hat sich einen Knochen stibitzt Wo auch noch ziemlich was drannen sitzt.

Wiederum mit mehr Verstand versehen als seine beiden Gegner ist der Affe, wie seine Kampfart beweist. Auf diesen springend driickt er ihn so zusammen, da8 gerade die Pfoten herausstehen. Mit der Zange reiBt er ihr dann die Klauen aus und befestigt hierauf den Korb an ihrem Schwanz, der am andern Ende desselben heraussteht.

Und lehnt ihn iiber den Schlot allhier. Draus geht ein merklicher Dampf herfiir. Wir sehen, diese Geschopfe sind von einem einzigen, wiitenden Trieb erfiillt, der sie nichts anderes sehen oder horen laBt: vor der Tat nie ein Gedanke an die Folgen.

Wenn sie nebenbei Verstand haben, so dient dieser nur, um diesen Trieb zu befriedigen, was sich in der raffinierteren Kampfesweise des Menschen und Affen zeigt. Und in diese ziigellose Welt stellt Busch seinen guten Philister, der nichts hoher schatzt als Ordnung und Regel. Der Erfolg ist von einer erschiitternden Lacherlichkeit. Busch gelangte zu der fast mechanischen Reaktion des psy- chischen Lebens, wie wir schon gesehen haben, durch Reduktion der Triebfedern unseres Mechanismus auf das Impulsive.

Es ist eigen, daB bei den Charakteren Corneilles, die doch ganz von der Vernunft beherrscht werden, etwas Ahnliches vorhanden ist; ja gerade, weil sie ausschlieBlich von der Vernunft beherrscht werden, sind sie von ahnlicher Einfachheit.

Sobald man ge- funden hat, was diese Vernunft sich zum Ziel gesetzt hat, sei es sittlich, sei es unsittlich, so hat man das Naturgesetz ihres Wesens entdeckt. Dieses ist meist eine ethische Norm, da Ethik und Vernunft haufig miteinander verkniipft sind.

G-anz ihrer Psychologie entsprechen die Weltanschauungen der drei Dichter. Der Mensch nach Corneille soil das Erhabene wollen, und nur dieses; Herrscher soil er sein, der sich nur einer stolzen Moral unterwirft. Menschlich will Goethe den Menschen; er sei weder ein Gott noch ein Tier; er unterdriicke nicht seine Triebe, sondern leite sie durch die Vernunft.

Busch ist zufrieden, wenn die gessellschaftsfeindlichen Triebe einiger- maBen geziigelt werden, wenn aus dem jugendlichen Nichtsnutz ein ehrbarer Philister wird, der eine behagliche Existenz fiihrt, ohne jemand zu schaden.

Tatsachlich scheinen ihm solche Menschen die wiinschenswertesten Existenzen zu sein: einfache Leute, wie man sie in der mittleren Biirgerschicht findet, deren Leben mit den Sorgen des Alltags ausgefiillt ist, die gerne gut essen und trinken, iiberhaupt ihren Instinkten nachgehen, sofern diese harmlos sind; Leute wie der spatere Schenkwirt Klecksel oder wie Knopp, der seinen Lebenszweck erfiillt glaubt, nachdem er ein Kind in die Welt gesetzt und dann verheiratet hat, 30 sie werden wenigstens mit einigermaBen heiler Haut entlassen; dies sind die Leute mit denen er Sympathie empfindet.

Theo- retiker dagegen kann er nicht ausstehen, wie wir schon im Fall so Vgl. Nun, so ein Mensch wie Busch, der in seinen Biichern alles kurz und klein schlagt, muB wohl fiir Priigelstrafe sein, da, wenn er gegen sie predigte, er sich selbst die Existenzberechti- gung nehmen wiirde. Gleich nachdem uns Debisch und sein Sohn vorgefiihrt wurden, lernen wir Herrn Druff kennen, dessen Namen schon erraten laBt, was wir zu erwarten haben: "Druff hat aber diese Eegel, Priigel machen frisch und kregel Und erweisen sich probat Ganz besonders vor der Tat.

Ein Erzieher nach Busch' Wunsch ist Bockelmann, der nicht lange theoretisiert, sondern je nach den Umstanden es mit freundlichem Zureden versucht, oder wenn es notig ist mit dem Stock argumentiert. Er macht aus zwei nichtsnutzigen Schlin- geln zwei Musterknaben, die dann wieder eine ahnliche Erzie- hung mit ihren Hunden vornehmen, so daB diese fiir Mark an einen Englander verkauft werden konnen und so das Gliick der Familie begriinden.

Im groBen ganzen ist Busch' Moral mehr verneinend als aufbauend. Er zeigt vor allem, wie wir nicht sein sollen, was eigentlich von seinem ironischen Temperament zu erwarten ware; ja selbst seine Lieblinge kommen nie ungerupft davon. Seine Personen sind Alltagsmenschen, die sich meist in alltaglichen Situationen be- finden. Wie kann er sie interessant machen, ohne das Laeher- liche an ihnen x hervorzuheben? Nicht daB er immer von oben herunter einen herzlosen Spott iiber sie ergieBt; gelegentlich vergiBt er sich, und wird auf ein paar Augenblicke liebens- wiirdig.

Er hatte eben als Kind, Schuljunge, Kleinstadter, nicht nur bei anderen, sondern auch an sich selbst so manche von den Noten, Geliisten und Schmerzen seiner spateren Helden empfunden.

So erzahlt er in seiner kurzen Selbstbiographie : "Beim Kiister diente ein Kuhjunge fiinf, sechs Jahre alter als ich, der hatte in einen rostigen Kirchenschliissel, so groB wie dem Petrus seiner, ein Ziindloch gefeilt.

Gehacktes Fensterblei hatte er auch schon genug; bios das Pulver fehlte ihm noch zu Blitz und Donner. Infolge seiner Beredsamkeit machte ich einen stillen Besuch bei einer gewissen steinernen Kruke, die auf dem Speicher stand. Nachmittags zogen wir mit den Kiihen auf die Waldwiese. GroBartig war der Wiederhall des Ge- schiitzes und so beilaufig ging ein altes Bauerlein vorbei in der Richtung des Dorfes. Abends kehrte ich frohlich heim und freute mich so recht auf das Nachtessen. Mein Vater empfing mich an der Tiire und lud mich ein, ihm auf den Speicher zu folgen.

Hier ergriff er mich beim linken Arm und trieb mich vermittelst eines Rohrstocks um die Kruke herum, in der das Pulver war. Wie peinlich mir das war, lieB ich weithin ver- lauten. Aber in der ersten Periode verhaltniBma'Big selten: Es ist als schame er sich, ein mensehlicb.

Gestalten und Klassen. Wenn Shakespeare und Moliere uns ein ziemlich voiles Bild der Stande und Gesellschaftsklassen ihrer Zeit gegeben haben, so hat uns Busch, wie gesagt, nur mit einer beschrankten Sphare seines Jahrhunderts bekannt gemacht, namlich dem Mittelstand. Wenigstens 1st um diesen alles andere gruppiert, wenn auch von hier aus gelegentlich Perspektiven nach unten wie nach oben gegeben werden.

Von diesem Mittelstand aber hat Busch ein weit genaueres Bild entworfen, in intensiver wie extensiver Hinsicht, als der Brite oder der Franzose es fur irgend einen ihrer Stande taten. Er weiB, wie diese Menschen spucken, sich schneuzen, kratzen, sich winden, wenn sie Leibschmerzen haben, er kennt sie bis tief ins Physiologische hinein; weiB, was sie gerne essen, wie sie mit Gabel und Messer umgehen, wann sie f riihstiicken, wann sie kneipen, was sie alles in der Trunkenheit anstellen, wie sie sind, wenn verliebt, wenn frohlich, wie sie sich andern, wenn sie sich verheiraten, wie ihre Hauser gebaut sind, wo die Gegenstande in Kiiche und Keller stehen, wie die Magd den Kuchen macht.

Ja, Busch dringt hier in eine Sphare, um die sich die alteren Dichter iiberhaupt. Wenn Blake kleine Kinder darstellt, haben sie etwas ungemein Zartes, Ah- nungsvolles; bei Busch sind es einfach feiste Tierchen, die schreien, bis sie etwas zu lutschen bekommen und dann mit innigem Behagen saugen. Sobald sie aber geniigend Kraft und Verstand haben, etwas kaput zu machen, dann gonnt er ihnen mehr Raum als sonst einem Geschopf. Bei ihnen 1st noch am meisten trieb- maBiges Leben zu fmden, ein Leben, wie es zu alien Zeiten und Orten mehr oder minder haufig auftritt.

Es ist eben das allge- mein Menschliche, das Busch vor allem interessiert ; daher sind auch viele seiner Menschen, ja die meisten Hauptgestalten be- ruflos. Berufe pressen den Menschen zu sehr in die Form einer bestimmten Zeit, als daB das Typische der Menschheit stark in ihnen betont werden kb'nnte.


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